Sociology Books PDF Free Download 2020

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Also known as subsistence poverty, this is an idea of poverty derived from the minimum requirements for subsistence: what a person must have to live and to make a living.(Sociology Books PDF)

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We can describe social mobility in absolute or relative terms. The absolute rate of mobility is the proportion of people in a particular social class who move up or down in the socio-economic hierarchy.

Relative social mobility is the proportion of one social class that moves up or down compared with the proportion of another class that moves. The distinction is important because the two measures can give a very different impression of the degree of social mobility. (Sociology Books PDF)


This denotes a political regime in which the ruler (usually a monarch) is not constrained in the exercise  of power either by custom or by rule of law, and which has an effective centralised administration so that the ruler’s will can b turned into action.

Sociology Books PDF

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The idea plays an important part in models of political evolution. Max Weber saw the absolutist state as a progressive stage between feudalism and modern capitalism: it created a bureaucratic administration, gradually gained a monopoly of the legitimate use of force, and used that force to impose law and order and hence predictability.

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While this fits the history of western Europe, in eastern Europe and other parts of the world absolutism retarded rather than encouraged progress derided social scientists who allowed the primary task of understanding to be subverted by technical issues of data collection and analysis.

Mills thought his colleagues misled by a desire to imitate the natural sciences. Excessive concern with the internal validity of statistical techniques and the assumption that if it could not be quantified, it was not evidence, meant that what passed for sociology was actually closer to alchemy:

Sociology Books PDF

elegant but pointless. Worse, because the survey data favoured by empiricists related to individuals (e.g. their attitudes or their demographic characteristics), the importance of social structure was under-estimated.(Sociology Books PDF)

Mills’s critique is a useful caution against losing sight of the purpose of research, but its blanket application as an argument against quantitative research is improper.(Sociology Books PDF)

Empirically minded historical sociologists (such as Charles Tilly) and students of social mobility (such as John Goldthorpe) have ably demonstrated that it is possible to combine statistical and technical sophistication in data collection and analysis with insightful theory and a due appreciation of the role of social forces.

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