Philosophy Books PDF for CSS & PMS Free Download 2020

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Download Philosophy Books PDF for CSS  and PMS

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I. Introduction:

 From the ancient time, common tendency of man to know the unknown things & explain the surroundings. And philosophy gave the rational way to think about his problem. It has close relation to all prevailing branches of knowledge.

 Broad subject, many branches, based on logic, rationality, answers the infinite questions

 It is since human on the earth in the world of rationality and logic to quest for knowledge.

Philosophy Books PDF for CSS

2. Definition:

 1st coined by Pythagoras

 Greek word-‘Philos’ meaning love & ‘Sofia’ meaning wisdom or nowledge. Thus, “Love of wisdom/knowledge”

 Traditionally the word, “philosophy”, means the description of study like logic, sociology, psychology etc.

 Surfacely the word, “philosophy” means view, vision and outlook of a particular person to a particular thing.

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Philosophy Books PDF for CSS

 Literally, philosophy is “the study of nature and meaning of the universe and of human life.” (Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary: Sixth edition) Now some authentic definitions of philosophy by some distinguished philosophers: “Philosophy is the science of sciences”. (Comte) “is the science of knowledge”. (Fichte) “is the science and criticism of cognition (process of knowledge to learn)”. (Kant) “aims at the knowledge of the eternal (forever), of the essential nature of things”. (Plato) “is the science which investigates the nature of being as it is in virtue of its own nature.

Thus,“is the love of wisdom”

Therefore, It is to be interested in the following four questions, which give rise to philosophy’s four main areas: Philosophy asks ultimate questions.

Philosophy Books PDF for CSS

1. What is truth? How is Truth arrived at? Reality
2. What is knowledge? Epistemology
3. What is the essential nature of things (God, people, universe)? Metaphysics. (Philosophy Books PDF for CSS)
4. What is the good life? Ethics
Philosophy seeks understanding.
1. Clarity of understanding–defining terms.
2. Help society and culture to be self-critical.—Making people think
3. Develop an ideology to guide people and society.—Establishes to generate ideologies

Philosophy Books PDF for CSS

Definition of Philosophy

There are many definitions of philosophy, however, with the consensus of philosophers, the worth mentioning definitions are the following:-
1-Etymologically-Philosophy is the love of wisdom.
2-Metaphycially-Philosophy as the search for reality. (Principle of life & existence)
Philosophy as the search for truth. (Philosophy Books PDF for CSS)
3-Ethically-Philosophy as the search for value or the best forms of life.
4-Cosmologically-Philosophy as the rational study of nature.
5-Dialectic arguments-Philosophy as the critical discussion of received ideas. (Logic). (Philosophy Books PDF for CSS)
6-Philosophy as the concern with the problems of human existence. (Karl Marx-advocate)

7-Philosophy as a reflection on human experience (Chinese & Indian Philosophers-
ideological). (Philosophy Books PDF for CSS)

3. Nature:
 1-Interlinked with diverse discipline science, psychology,
 2-Branches-“metaphysics”, “epistemology”, “ethics”, “logic” and “the infrastructure of disciplines”

Philosophy Books PDF for CSS

3-To know-truth, rationally and logically.
4-To Wonder-basic questions about universe and man-Greek Thinkers (Philosophy Books PDF for CSS)
 5-Ontology (nature of existence), Subjective (man), Objective (universe)- questions (man’s relation with universe & “change”-(born, die), (season changing) Dialectical Argumentation-thoughts & rational arguments 7-School of though-Negates with one another-idealist, Materialist, empiricist(experience as the basic ideas), utilitarian (the belief that the right course of action is the one that will produce the greatest happiness of the greatest number of people) or designed to be useful and not beautiful: etc..(Philosophy Books PDF for CSS)

4. Scope:

 Parameter & what to talk/does not talk about:(Philosophy Books PDF for CSS)
 -What philosophy talks about:
 ~universal & general realities. Sees things broadly as a whole.
 ~Universal discipline-talks about man and everything what interlined with him.
 -What philosophy does not talk about: (Philosophy Books PDF for CSS)

 -Does not talk about particular, specific, individual entities, example of democracy: it does
not talk about the democracy of Pakistan but talks about global democracy.

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