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Gender-Based Violence

Gender Studies Books PDF

Definitions

Violence: is any act that causes injury or harm, intimidates or causes fear, and demeans or humiliates a person.

Gender-based Violence: violence involving men and women, in which the woman/female is usually the victim and which arises from unequal power relationships between men and women.

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Gender Studies Books PDF

Forms of Gender-based Violence

Physical. Acts that include bodily harm. Beating, kicking, punching, burning, arm-twisting, arm twisting, etc.

Psychological: Refers to words or actions that destroy or harm a woman’s belief in herself. What it does is demeanor disempower a woman; undermining her mental or emotional well-being. Humiliating remarks, public ridicule, intimidation, threats, forced imprisonment, isolation, instilling fear, stalking, “always checking up,” forced to witness injury to pet, unfounded accusations, silent treatment.

Economic: withdrawal of financial support, maintaining total control of family finances, running up bills for which the victim is responsible for payment, forbidding employment/occupation.

Sexual: forcing the victim to do indecent acts, forced prostitution, withholding sex. Treating the woman as a sexual object Forcing the woman to watch obscene/indecent shows

Why Women Stay in an Abusive Relationship?

The man might change for the better. She still loves the man despite everything. She is doing it for the children (so as not to
have a broken family). She cannot support the children by herself. She is afraid of what the husband might do to her. The husband might take the children. She “probably deserves the beating” (Gender Studies Books PDF)

Barriers to Leaving: Situation

Economic dependence. Fear of greater physical danger/ suffering worse. Fear of emotional damage to children

Fear of losing custody of children. Lack of alternative housing and/or job skills. Social isolation. “Acceptable violence”. Ties to the community, her home, belongings. Insecurity. Afraid she can’t cope. Pity/ Fears he might commit suicide. Denial. “It’s really not that bad.”. Love. Especially during the “Honeymoon(Gender Studies Books PDF)
stage”.. Shame. Unfounded hopefulness. “Things will get  better”. Learned helplessness. Demolished self-esteem. Barriers to Leaving: Personal Beliefs. Parenting. Needing a partner to raise kids. Religious pressure. To keep family together no matter what. Duty. I swore to stay married until death does us part. The belief that marriage is forever Responsibility. It’s up to her to work things out and save the relationship.

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Gender Studies Books PDF

Profile of Batterers

Believe that violence could give them easy results Insecure. Extremely jealous and possessive Emotionally dependent on their wives. Externalize blame for their actions. Have poor impulse control. Profile of Batterers (cont). Low self-esteem. Poor self-image. Engage in the internalization of traditional male roles (being the head). They cannot translate their feelings into words, so they act it out. Deny that they are violent. (Gender Studies Books PDF)

Profile of Battered Women

They believe that violence done to them was their fault. They fear for their lives as well as the lives of their children. They have an irrational belief that the abuser is
omnipotent. They are unable to place the responsibility for the violence elsewhere. (Gender Studies Books PDF)

Effects of Violence Against Women: Social/Economic

Lost working hours for the abused and their abuser’s Pressure on health care system and other social services Income loss for the abused breadwinner Detrimental effects on school performance of abused children Long term consequences of abuse. (intergenerational transmission) Violation of human rights and policy of the state. Deters potential contribution to national development. 

Economic costs on the victims like home displacement, legal costs, medical costs. Effects of Violence Against Women:Mental/Emotional Fears, nervousness Sleeping disorders (nightmares, insomnia) Depression, nervous breakdown, suicidal attempts (tulala, nasisiraan ng bait) Shame, guilt, self-blaming, loss of self-esteem and confidence Relationship among family members is affected, especially the victim of abuse.

Gender Studies Books PDF

Cycle of Abuse

  • Tension building.
  • Tension is increased.
  • Breakdown of communication
  • Victim becomes fearful and feels the need to pacify
    the abuser.
  • Incident. Verbal, physical, threats, blaming.
  • Reconciliation
  • Abuser apologizes, gives excuses
  • Blames victim Says it wasn’t as bad as the victim claims
  • Calm Incident is forgotten (“Honeymoon”
    phase)
  • Psychological Stages

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